The images below are in no way “official.” They are simply paintings or statues that I came to love during the years I spent in Japan. For me, they embody the Buddhist ideals called the four Bramaviharas. This word refers to the “sublime attitudes”–loving kindness, compassion, joy, and equanimity– that open the door to the “dwelling (vihara)” of the “Divine (Brama).” They are sometimes referred to as “the four immeasurables ” since their attainment is without end.
These four are also called the “Buddhist virtues.” As I have suggested in other posts, the idea of “virtue” has become etiolated in the modern world, perhaps as a result of a Puritanical focus on sexual propriety. The notion of virtue, however, has a rich heritage that carries across many cultures: Toku in Japanese (as In the great Shogun Tokugawa: the River of Virtue); Te in Chinese (this is the Te of the Tao Te Ching); Arete in Greek, referring to the excellence of things from crafts to character; and Virtus in Latin, deriving from the word Vir (man, or more generally human). In all of these traditions, I believe, Virtue points to a maturely developed human character–or more simply, a grownup.
The cardinal Western virtues of Wisdom, Courage, Temperance and Justice are all complimentary facets of the jewel of character. They exist together or not at all. For example, one cannot be courageous, temperate, and just unless she does so wisely. Thus all the virtues infuse and empower each other. They include perspective and focus of mind, a generous and open heart, integrity or centered and present wholeness, and a sense of fairness to all. Aristotle said that Happiness (eudaimonia, or human flouishing) consists in activity in accord with virtue. I believe this is a philosophical way of saying that a flourishing life is one lived from the very best in ourselves. That, to me, is a noble aspiration.
The Eastern Virtues are likewise complementary. It seems to me, however, that there is a shift of emphasis from the Western tradition of Wisdom as the lynchpin of the Virtues, to Loving Kindness as the leaven of the virtues. Thus, the Western list of Wisdom, Courage, Temperance, and Justice, becomes Loving Kindness, Compassion, Joy, and Equanimity in the Buddhist tradition. Here are some of my favorite images: